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Accessories for ventilation systems.

In ventilation systems with mechanical induction, in addition to fans that play an absolutely crucial role, there are various components of ventilation systems, no less important for creating the necessary indoor air indices. These are water heaters and electric heaters, filters of various designs, check valves, louver valves, throttle valves, drop dips, recuperators and air distribution devices (grates, anemostats, diffuzors). Accessories for ventilation systems is a mandatory and integral part of these systems, some of which are described below.

Filters

Filter, - is a device for air purification, that is to separate from the air solid particles of different sizes, both entering the room and exhaust, if this is necessary. filters for rectangular channels Filters of three main types are used to clean the tidal and recirculated air: dry porous, porous, electric or electrostatic. Dry porous filters include fibrous, mesh and sponge types of filters, cassette filters for round ducts to wetted - fiber and oil types of filters.
In the powerful industrial ventilation systems with the use of vent chambers, uniform filtered filters such as FJP and FNV and oil filters are used to clean air from dust at an initial dust content of not more than 10 mg/m3.
For inflatable ventsystems of public and residential buildings, small industrial ventsystems with round or rectangular channels, appropriate cassette or pocket filters are used. Channel type filters have attachment sizes unified round and rectangular air ducts, respectively.
The most important indicators of air filters are their efficiency and resistance. The most widespread now is the classification of filters by dispersion of trapped dust. There is an old national classification, from I to III class, where I class is considered to be the highest. The world-wide practice, which has recently been used, also divides filters into coarse, fine, and especially fine-purifying filters. Several standards are used to determine the performance of the filters: the EUROVENT 4/5 European standard, US standard ASHRAE 52-76 and two UK standards - BS 6540, used for coarse and fine purification filters, and BS 3928 - for filters of particularly fine purification. All of the above standards contain rather close parameters that characterize different classes of filters. So, for rough cleaning with low indoor air purity, EUROVENT 4/5, DIN 24185 and DIN 24184 classes EU1-EU4 are used according to standard EN 779 - G1-G4 class filters; for fine purification, respectively, class filters EU5-EU9 and F5-F9; and for ultra-fine purification, according to the standard EN 1882 class filters EU10-EU14.
Electrostatic filters, the so-called plasma, are also commonly used for smoother dust cleaning, in particular in air conditioners, and bactericidal filters are particularly useful for clean rooms.

Mufflers

Mufflers are used to reduce the level of acoustic noise from the fan round mufflersand are used in channel ventilanion systems with air ducts, both round and rectangular. The silencers, usually made of galvanized tin, are manufactured. Round noise mufflers are two cylinders with a layer of noise-absorbing material between them, with the inner cylinder perforated. The mufflers of the rectangular section are of two types. mufflers for rectangular channels The first ones have a structure similar to the design of the round noise mufflers, and the latter have inwardly set transverse or longitudinal plates of the noise-absorbing material. The second type mufflers have a higher noise-absorbing performance, but slightly more aerodynamic resistance. Shumuglushnye also have the size unified according to the size of the air ducts. For connecting with air ducts or other accessories, rectangular mufflers are equipped with flanges of the appropriate size of shinake.

Valves

Jalousie valves (air adjustable flaps) designed to overlap or control airflow jalousie valvein a rectangular channel by hand or by means of a servo drive.
Constructively, jalousie valves represent a series of vertically mounted in a rectangular body of blade-valves, rotating on the axes and provide in a definite position a complete, smooth ceiling of the air flow in its intersection. The valve body is made of galvanized steel, shovels - made of aluminum, gears for rotation of the blades, usually plastic. Shell fitted with connecting accessories.
Jalousal valves are often installed at the inlet of the tidal ventilation system. Rarely - on branches of a large section from main pipelines to regulate costs and, or resistance to the network. The sizes of the damper are unified according to the size of the air ducts.

Choke-valves are designed to regulate flow on the branches choke-valve for round ductesof ventilanion system as well as for full overflow by hand or by means of a servo drive. Choke valves are round and rectangular, but for large rectangular ducts, the air regulated shutters of the louvre type are often used to throttle the flow. choke-valve for rectangular ductes Choke valves have the size of unified duct sizes. They are made, as a rule, from galvanized steel.

Check valves are used to overlap air channels after stopping the fan.check valve for round channels Check valves are round and rectangular sections, sizes, unified check valves for rectangular channelsfor the size of air ducts. By design and principle of operation, the return valves are gravitational and with spring-loaded blades such as "butterfly". Reverse valves made of galvanized steel are made, blades can be made of sheet aluminum.

Heaters

The heaters are used in inflatable ventilation systems for heating the air entering the room to a normalized temperature, or for overheating it with air heating. Depending on the source of heat, there are electric heaters and water heaters.

Water heaters are heat exchangers of a rectangular cross section in a steel housing and are installed either in the vent chamber or directly into the air channel. The heat exchanger surface of the heater is made of several rows of copper tubes with aluminum edges connected to the collectors, in the direct and reverse feed. At the top and bottom of the collector are openings for irradiation and water heater for round ductscoolant drain. Duct water heaters can havewater heater for rectangular ductsunified joining sections are both rectangular and round. In order to protect water heaters from freezing, in their circulating branches it is necessary to assume the presence of a circulating pump, and in the air channels immediately after them - an anticilluminous capillary thermostat, to shut off the system when the temperature of the supply air is lower than the set value.

Electric heaters consist of a steel case that can be round or rectangular, one or a group of TENs, depending on the power of the heater, and two thermostats,electric heaters for rectangular channelsone - for protection against overheating (+60оС), the other is fire fighting, which works at +90оС. Electric heaters have a design that allows them to be mounted in any position in the direction of the arrow electric heaters for round ducts indicating the direction of air travel. In addition, it should be noted that in ventsystems, where electric heaters are installed, the control should necessarily include the delay of the fan after shutting down the system for cooling and cooling TENs.

Recuperators. The efficiency of the recuperators.

Duct cross-flow recuperators are designed to transfer part of the heat from the exhaust air to the inflow. Relatively recently the recuperators began to be used not only in tidal and inflow-extracting installations, but also directly in channel systems with a separate set of components.
recuperators are cross-currentDuct cross-flow recuperators consist of steel galvanized body and heat transfer surface, which is a set of specially profiled aluminum plates. The main characteristics of plate recuperators are their efficiency (efficiency), as well as resistance in the air duct system.
The efficiency of the recuperators depends on the amount of tidal and exhaust air, their ratio (with the predominance of the exhaust stream over the flow efficiency increases), the temperature of the tributary and especially the exhaust air (the higher the temperature of the exhaust air and more than its suicide to the temperature of the inflow air, the greater the efficiency), and can range from 30 to 80%. At present, many manufacturers have already mastered the production of recuperators most commonly used standard sizes.

Drip traps

Drip traps serve to prevent dripping of moisture formed on the surface of the coolant or recuperator into the ducts of the system. The case and pallet are made of galvanized steel, droplet cells - made of sheet aluminum or the same steel. drip traps The detained moisture is collected in the tray and flows through drainage system. Dimension droplets are uniform in accordance with the size of air channels. Drip droplets are installed directly behind coolers (recuperators) and can be operated only in a certain position (bottom tray).

Air distribution devices

Air distribution devices are various types of grates, anemostats, diffuzors, nozzles. Their main purpose - the distribution of air flow inside the room. анемостати
Depending on the destination grid, there are different shapes, sizes, and designs. Facade fence grates are made, as a rule, with one row of stationary blinds welded from steel or aluminum. In small ventsystems for air recirculation can also be used gratings of UV-resistant plastic or aluminum with a coarse filter, grid.
To regulate the direction of the jet, one-row and double-row lattices with adjustable jalousies are used, and if there is a need to adjust the amount and or speed of the output (inlet) air, - gratesapply gratings with a split regulator. The material for grids can be plastic, aluminum, steel for specific conditions, even stainless steel or wood. The sizes and number of lattices are selected after calculations of the vent system on their live cross-section.
Anemostats are used for relatively small ventsystems, usually in rooms with suspended or suspended ceilings. Anemostats are made of plastic or aluminum, with diameters, usually from 80 to 200 mm. By appointment anemostats are tidal, exhaust or inflow-exhaust. Anemostats have an inner part that allows you to regulate its live section and, accordingly, the amount of air passing through it.
In the tidal and exhaust systems, depending on their purpose, and the rooms being serviced by them, diffusers of various sizes, shapes and constructions are used for distribution of air flows. Diffusers are featured on the market with a large lineup and many manufacturers. These are special purpose diffusers for ventsystems, for heating systems, air conditioning, for the creation of air jets of various directions and forces. ceiling diffusers The diffusers can be installed in the ceilings, at high altitudes and directly above the service area. The diffusers are made of both plastic and aluminum. Optional diffusers can be completed vortex diffusers with different devices, flow regulators, directional flow regulators, etc. All air distribution devices are characterized by individual aerodynamic supports, which must be taken into account when designing a specific vent system.

The aforementioned components of ventilation systems are installed individually, if necessary, on the basis of the task of air-conditioning of a particular object.

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