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Accessories for ventilation systems.
In ventilation systems with mechanical induction, in addition to fans that play an absolutely crucial role, there are various components of ventilation systems, no less important for creating the necessary indoor air indices. These are water heaters and electric heaters, filters of various designs, check valves, louver valves, throttle valves, drop dips, recuperators and air distribution devices (grates, anemostats, diffuzors). Accessories for ventilation systems is a mandatory and integral part of these systems, some of which are described below.
Filter, - is a device for air purification, that is to separate from the air solid particles of different sizes, both entering the room and exhaust, if this is necessary. Filters of three main types are used to clean the tidal and recirculated air: dry porous, porous, electric or electrostatic. Dry porous filters include fibrous, mesh and sponge types of filters, to wetted - fiber and oil types of filters.
Mufflers are used to reduce the level of acoustic noise from the fan and are used in channel ventilanion systems with air ducts, both round and rectangular. The silencers, usually made of galvanized tin, are manufactured. Round noise mufflers are two cylinders with a layer of noise-absorbing material between them, with the inner cylinder perforated. The mufflers of the rectangular section are of two types. The first ones have a structure similar to the design of the round noise mufflers, and the latter have inwardly set transverse or longitudinal plates of the noise-absorbing material. The second type mufflers have a higher noise-absorbing performance, but slightly more aerodynamic resistance. Shumuglushnye also have the size unified according to the size of the air ducts. For connecting with air ducts or other accessories, rectangular mufflers are equipped with flanges of the appropriate size of shinake.
Jalousie valves (air adjustable flaps) designed to overlap or control airflow in a rectangular channel by hand or by means of a servo drive.
Choke-valves are designed to regulate flow on the branches of ventilanion system as well as for full overflow by hand or by means of a servo drive. Choke valves are round and rectangular, but for large rectangular ducts, the air regulated shutters of the louvre type are often used to throttle the flow. Choke valves have the size of unified duct sizes. They are made, as a rule, from galvanized steel.
Check valves are used to overlap air channels after stopping the fan. Check valves are round and rectangular sections, sizes, unified for the size of air ducts. By design and principle of operation, the return valves are gravitational and with spring-loaded blades such as "butterfly". Reverse valves made of galvanized steel are made, blades can be made of sheet aluminum.
The heaters are used in inflatable ventilation systems for heating the air entering the room to a normalized temperature, or for overheating it with air heating. Depending on the source of heat, there are electric heaters and water heaters.
Water heaters are heat exchangers of a rectangular cross section in a steel housing and are installed either in the vent chamber or directly into the air channel. The heat exchanger surface of the heater is made of several rows of copper tubes with aluminum edges connected to the collectors, in the direct and reverse feed. At the top and bottom of the collector are openings for irradiation and coolant drain. Duct water heaters can haveunified joining sections are both rectangular and round. In order to protect water heaters from freezing, in their circulating branches it is necessary to assume the presence of a circulating pump, and in the air channels immediately after them - an anticilluminous capillary thermostat, to shut off the system when the temperature of the supply air is lower than the set value.
Electric heaters consist of a steel case that can be round or rectangular, one or a group of TENs, depending on the power of the heater, and two thermostats,one - for protection against overheating (+60оС), the other is fire fighting, which works at +90оС. Electric heaters have a design that allows them to be mounted in any position in the direction of the arrow indicating the direction of air travel. In addition, it should be noted that in ventsystems, where electric heaters are installed, the control should necessarily include the delay of the fan after shutting down the system for cooling and cooling TENs.
Recuperators. The efficiency of the recuperators.
Duct cross-flow recuperators are designed to transfer part of the heat from the exhaust air to the inflow. Relatively recently the recuperators began to be used not only in tidal and inflow-extracting installations, but also directly in channel systems with a separate set of components.
Drip traps serve to prevent dripping of moisture formed on the surface of the coolant or recuperator into the ducts of the system. The case and pallet are made of galvanized steel, droplet cells - made of sheet aluminum or the same steel. The detained moisture is collected in the tray and flows through drainage system. Dimension droplets are uniform in accordance with the size of air channels. Drip droplets are installed directly behind coolers (recuperators) and can be operated only in a certain position (bottom tray).
Air distribution devices
Air distribution devices are various types of grates, anemostats, diffuzors, nozzles. Their main purpose - the distribution of air flow inside the room.
The aforementioned components of ventilation systems are installed individually, if necessary, on the basis of the task of air-conditioning of a particular object.